A Collection Transcribed
by Edmund Berkeley, Jr.
List of Letters
About This Collection
Electronic Text Center
, University of Virginia Library
NOTES ON OFTEN-CITED
PERSONS, PLACES, AND THINGS
IN ROBERT CARTER'S DIARY AND LETTERS
Edmund Berkeley, Jr.
This text contains brief notes with sources identifying persons with whom Robert Carter frequently corresponds, or that he mentions often in his diary and letters.
ANDERSON'S PILLS, or "Anderson's Scots Pills, a product of the 1630's" had been invented by Patrick Anderson, a Scot, who wrote in a book published in 1635 that he had learned the secret of the pills in Venice. He passed the formula to his daughter Katherine who in turn passed it to a doctor named Thomas Weir in 1686. Weir obtained letters patent on the formula from James II in 1687. ( George B. Griffenhagen and James Harvey Young. "Old English Patent Medicines in America." [Contributions From the Museum of History and Technology. ]
Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1959, paper 10, 156-183.
1739), second son of Colonel John Armistead. He lived at "Hesse," Gloucester County, with his wife, Martha Burwell. His sister, Judith Armistead,
was Robert Carter's first wife, and another sister, Elizabeth Armistead, was Ralph Wormeley's
wife. ("Armistead Family". [Virginia Magazine. . . .]
ARMISTEAD, JUDITH see
Carter, Judith (Armistead)
, London merchant, partner to William Dawkins
BAILEY, ARTHUR (d. 1683)
, London merchant and a former ship's captain who had been in Virginia. He apparently was an old friend of Robert Carter's father, John Carter I
, who may have been an apprentice under Bailey; he was known to Robert Carter's older brother, John Carter II, as well for he is mentioned in their wills. Alan Simpson has discovered that Bailey probably lived in the Mile-End district of London where his son later lived. Robert Carter seems to have lived in this house while attending school. ( [Simpson,]
"Robert Carter's Schooldays."
BAILEY, ARTHUR (d. ca.
, London merchant, owned a number of ships that traded with Virginia, and was active in presenting the affairs of the merchants and trade in general to the government. He wrote in 1708 a pamphlet titled A Short State of the Virginia Trade in a Letter Occasioned by a Bill Proposed to the House of Commons for Commuting Tobacco for French Wines
. His daughter, Katherine Bailey, married Robert Bristow
. ( [Egerton MS921, British Library, cited in Olson, The Virginia Merchants of London. . . .
(1686-1745), of "Millenbeck," Lancaster County, not far from "Corotoman," was a close friend of Robert Carter's, a justice, burgess, and wealthy and powerful man. ( [ Mann. "William Ball. . . ."
(d. 1738), of Devon, England, had been a surgeon in the British navy before coming to Virginia. He settled in Richmond County, was a justice in 1721, sheriff in 1726-1728, and married Frances Wright. (Ryland. [Richmond County Virginia. . . . pp. 195, 500, 504.
BELL, DR. JOHN,
was the minister of Christ Church Parish, Lancaster County.
1665-1718), of Petsworth Parish, Gloucester County, and, after 1713, of "Barn Elms," Middlesex County; he was appointed to the Council in the same year. He married in 1703 Lucy Burwell, daughter of Lewis Burwell.
( Edmund Berkeley, Jr., "Berkeley, Edmund," in [Dictionary of Virginia Biography.]
Richmond: Library of Virginia, 1998. I, 448-49.
1668-1728), of Gloucester County was "Speaker of the House of Burgesses at four of the first five assemblies of the eighteenth century," and had been clerk of the House earlier. He was clerk of Gloucester County from 1695 until 1714, treasurer of the colony from 1712 until 1723, and was elevated to the Council in 1719. (Kukla. Speakers and Clerks. . . .
1655-1743), a Scot and a Presbyterian minister, represented the Anglican bishop of London in Virginia (to which he emigrated in 1685) as commissary from 1690 until his death. Often at odds with the governors of the colony, and especially Francis Nicholson,
he was a formidable opponent. The founder of the College of William and Mary and its first president, he was a member of the Council, and, as president of the Council, served briefly as governor in 1740-1741. (Rouse. [James Blair.]
; and Billings. et al.
[Colonial Virginia: A History, ]
esp. Chapter 7, "The Era of the Council."
BRAXTON, MARY (CARTER)
(1712-1736), Robert Carter's thirteenth child. She married George Braxton II (c.1705-1749) of "Newington," King and Queen County, who worked with his father as a merchant, factor, and land speculator. Her son, Carter Braxton, was a Signer of the Declaration of Independence. (Carlton. [A Genealogy. . . of Robert Carter. . . .]
and Kneebone, Bearss, et al.
. [Dictionary of Virginia Biography.]
was a speculative land development put together by Nicholas Hayward (d. ante
1697) of London, a notary public, merchant, and speculator. Hayward assembled a syndicate composed of London merchants Robert Bristow
(1643-1707) and Richard Foote (his brother-in-law), and George Brent of "Woodstock," Stafford County. The syndicate purchased on January 10, 1686/87, from Lord Culpeper, by then the sole owner of the Northern Neck Proprietary, 30,006 acres in Stafford County "Between the Courses of the said Two Rivers, Rappahannock and Potowmack . . . upon and Between the Southwest and Northeast Branches of Ocaquant Creek. . . ." Hayward obtained a dispensation from King James II that would allow the Hugenots that he hoped to settle on the land to have the "full exercise of their Religion." The town that Hayward hoped to build on the tract was called Brenton, "but this was corrupted by local [Virginia] usage into Brent Town, and that came to be the designation of the whole tract." Hayward was not successful in persuading Hugenots to move to the lands, and, after flirting with other possibilities, the tract remained unsettled and unsurveyed at the time of his death about 1697. The members of the syndicate and their heirs bequeathed and sold their rights in the Brenton tract for generations. Robert Carter was to have considerable trouble over the tract after becoming agent of the proprietors again in 1721. He was pressed to grant lands in the area of Brenton, but it was very difficult to do so because the tract had not been surveyed -- and was not to be until 1737-1738. Fairfax Harrison, in a chapter entitled "Brent Town, Ravensworth and the Hugenots," in his [Landmarks of Old Prince William]
(from which all quotations used here are taken) tells the story of Brent Town extremely well. (Harrison. [Landmarks. . . .]
See also Davis, [William Fitzhugh. . . .]
p. 191, fn 2
, and other sources.)
BRICK HOUSE QUARTER was located in Lancaster County roughly three miles northwest of Carter's home. It was a "collection of parcels acquired . . . from various owners." One of those owners was the family of " Rev. Andrew Jackson, (Irish-Presbyterian) minister of Christ Church Parish from 1686-1710. His brother James sold Robert Carter some 1,300 acres in 1713, part of which included the Brick House tract. . . . [Rev.] Jackson lived in a manor house (the "Brick House") on lands that became part of this Brick House Quarter. . . ." In the 1733 inventory of Robert Carter's estate, there were 20 slaves, 63 sheep, 45 hogs, and 46 cattle on the place. (People in Profile. p. 23
; Robert Teagle, Historic Christ Church Foundation , email to the editor, 8/17/2007;
and "Carter Papers: An Inventory. . . "
(1643-1707), "emigrated to Virginia about 1660 and established himself in Gloucester County." He became
a burgess, and supported the government during Bacon's Rebellion, was captured by the rebels, and lost much property. He is usually referred to as "Major Bristow," probably because of his service at this time. Returning to England in 1677, he became a member of the Grocer's Company, a successful merchant in the Virginia trade, and an alderman of London. His daughter was married to Arthur Bailey
. Bristow was one of the four partners in the Brenton land
speculation in Virginia; see the letter of January 1, 1715, Hooper to Robert Carter, for more information. (Harrison. [Landmarks. . . .]
(d. 1706), son of Major Robert Bristow
; his will states that he was of the parish of
Gabriel, Fenchurch Street, London, and that he was a merchant. ( ["Bristow Wills. . . ."
BRISTOW, ROBERT (1688-1737)
, grandson of Major Robert Bristow
; Robert Carter turned down an opportunity to be his Virginia agent, and, in 1709, Bristow gave a power of attorney to Thomas Booth of York County for that purpose. In 1772, a Thomas Booth was still the Bristow family's agent, but their lands were confiscated during the American Revolution. Bristow was a Member of Parliament for Winchelsea, 1708-1737, and a director of the Bank of England. (Tyler. ["Inscriptions on Old Tombs in Gloucester Co., Virginia."
, and Sedgwick. [Parliament.]
, commanded the Elizabeth and Mary,
a London ship of 20 men and 10 guns, built at Ipswich in 1697, and of 250 tons. She was owned by Goodwin
Samuel Landford, Nicholas Goodwin, William Holditch, and Job Mathews. This ship sank during a voyage to Virginia in the winter of 1701-1702; John Burford later commanded the Mansfield
by which Robert Carter sent tobacco to London. ( ["List of Ships . . . 1705."
and [Naval officer's return for Rappahannock River, 1700. . . .]
BURNT HOUSE was a farm in Richmond County, "apparently in the vicinity of Cat Point Bridge." (Miller, Mary R. [Place-Names of the Northern Neck. . . .]
(1681?-1753), brother of Robert Burridge
, a merchant in London trading primarily "to Guinea and the West Indies." John Burridge represented Lyme Regis in Parliament from 1710-1728. In 1717, his estate was seized by the Crown for non-payment of duties on wine. (Sedgwick. [The History of Pariament . . . Commons.]
(1683-1752), a merchant of Lyme Regis, Dorset, who came from an ancient Somerset family. He was mayor of Lyme in 1710 and 1721. His brother John was a London merchant who represented Lyme in Parliament. In Robert Carter's letter to Robert Burridge of July 13, 1720, he mentions "Mr. Joseph Paise Yor. Partner." ( George Roberts. [History and Antiquities of the Borough of Lyme Regis and Charmworth. ]
London, 1834. pp. 383-4, 209, 286, 295,
and other sources. )
BURWELL, ELIZABETH (CARTER)
Elizabeth Carter(1692-1734), Robert Carter's oldest daughter, married in 1709 Nathaniel Burwell (1680-1721) of "Carter's Creek," Gloucester County, and, in 1724, Dr. George Nicholas.
( -1710), of "Carter's Creek," Gloucester County, and later of "King's Creek," York County. He was a member of the Council, 1702-1710.
(1680-1721), of "Carter's Creek" (later called "Fairfield"), Gloucester County, a justice, burgess, and Council member. He married Robert Carter's daughter Elizabeth Carter (1692-1734) in 1709. Robert Carter managed his estates until his own death.
" probably had belonged to Robert Carter's son-in-law, Nathaniel Burwell
, who died in 1721. The profits from this farm went to Burwell's widow, Elizabeth, and Robert Carter acquired title to it at some point because he bequeathed it to one of Elizabeth's sons.
(1652-1704), first of that name in Virginia,
arrived" before 1670 . . . to live with his maternal uncle, Thomas Stegge, auditor general of the colony." From Stegge, Byrd learned of the lucrative fur trade in which he subsequently prospered. He served as a burgess, was appointed to the Council in 1682, and in 1687 won "the office his uncle had held of duputy auditor and receiver general of the revenues." (Tinling, [The Correspondence of the Three William Byrds. . . .]
of Milgate, County Kent,
England, was related to the Fairfax family, and became trustee for Lady Fairfax after the fifth baron's death. He sought the advice of the Micajah
and Richard Perry in finding a replacement for Edmund Jenings
as Virginia agent for the Northern Neck Proprietary, and Robert Carter obtained a lease for it in 1721. The trusteeship ended in 1727. (See
various references in Brown. [Virginia Baron. . . .,]
and the discussion of the Northern Neck Proprietary linked from the home page.)
CARTER, ELIZABETH (LANDON) WILLIS
(1684-1719), Robert Carter's second wife by whom he had ten children, the last, George, being born in 1718. (Carleton. [A Genealogy. . . of Robert Carter. . . .]
1741/42), Robert Carter's fifteenth child. He attended William & Mary, and was sent to London by his older brother, John Carter
, after Robert Carter's death. He studied law there, and remained in London until his death. (Carleton. [A Genealogy. . . of Robert Carter. . . .]
CARTER, JAMES, (1684-1743), of Stafford County, was the younger brother of Carter's dear friend and associate, Captain Thomas Carter of Lancaster County, and was one of Robert Carter's chief managers. ( Joseph Lyon Miller, "Captain Thomas Carter and His Descendants," [William and Mary Quarterly.]
1st. ser., 17(1908-09): 275-285.
1648-1690), older brother of Robert, justice, militia officer, and prominent citizen of Lancaster County. He inherited the bulk of his father's estate, and managed it well, while adhering both to the specifics and intent of his father's will with regard to the education of his younger brother. John
Carter II married twice, first to Elizabeth Hull, daugher of John and Elizabeth Hull, by whom he had his only child, Elizabeth Carter.
Carter married his second wife, Elizabeth Travers, in 1684; she married Christopher Wormeley after Carter's death, and died herself in 1693. (Thomas Allen Glenn. [Some Colonial Mansions and Those Who Lived in Them, With Genealogies of the Various Families Mentioned.]
Philadelphia: H. T. Coates & Company, 1899. pp. 244 ff.; review of [The Ancestry of Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States of America, 1889-1893]
in [Virginia Magazine of History and Biography,]
2(Oct. 1894): 236, with notes on the Carter family; and other sources.)
1689-1742), oldest child of Robert, studied at Trinity College, Cambridge, and then at the Middle Temple; was called to the bar in 1720. Alexander
Spotswood appointed John Carter agent for Virginia in England, but he resigned this post when he was appointed Secretary of State for the colony in 1722. This post his father had obtained for him by working through Micajah Perry to influence the government in England from which the office was purchased for £1500. He returned to Virginia in 1723, and had a distinguished career. He married Elizabeth Hill of "Shirley," and had four children. (Carleton. [A Genealogy. . . of Robert Carter. . . .]
; and "Virginia Council Journals," [Virginia Magazine of History and Biography.]
CARTER, JUDITH (ARMISTEAD)
(1665-1699), Robert Carter's first wife, mother of: John Carter (1689/90-1742)
, Elizabeth Carter (1692-1734)
; Judith Carter (c. 1693, d. in infancy)
; Sarah Carter (c. 1694, d. in infancy)
; and a second Judith Carter (1695-c. 1750)
(Carleton. [A Genealogy. . . of Robert Carter. . . .]
CARTER, LUCY see
Fitzhugh, Lucy (Carter)
CARTER, MARY see
Braxton, Mary (Carter)
(1672-1733) was the second of that name in Lancaster County, and may have been Robert Carter's first cousin as there is evidence that their fathers were brothers. He lived at "Barford" in the northern part of the county. ( Catherine Adams Jones. [The Early Thomas Carters of Lancaster County, Virginia.]
Lancaster, Virginia: Mary Ball Washington Museum & Library, 1982.
A vessel named the Carter
traded to Virginia for many years; she is most often referred to as the Carter Frigatt
. The captain in 1706 was Thomas Graves who is mentioned in the Lancaster County Court Orders Book for judgements against him obtained by Robert Carter. Later, the Carter
would be commanded by Baily Kent, 1718-1721, Thomas Dove, and by Benjamin Graves. She was owned by Robert Carter and William Dawkins
in 1720. ( Survey report 6800 for Adm. 68/194-5, Virginia Colonial Records Project, Albert H. Small Special Collections Library, University of Virginia
; and Lancaster County Court Orders Book 5, 1702-13, p. 187, as abstracted in Jones, [Orders Book Entries . . . Referring to "Robert Carter. . . . " ]
," the Burwell home, was in Gloucester County about two miles up the stream of this name from "Rosewell."
" probably was the farm in Prince William County called "Range Quarter" in the 1732 inventory of Robert Carter's estate. ("Carter Papers: An Inventory. . . "
merchant, second of the name, a partner in a firm that was involved in the Virginia tobacco trade for over 100 years. Robert Carter mentions in his will that he had purchased lands in Richmond, Westmoreland, and King George counties from Cary. ( Carter Papers: Robert Carter's will
, and Price. "Who Was John Norton? A Note on . . . Some Eighteenth-Century London Virginia Firms."
was a farm owned by Robert Carter located in Lancaster County relatively close to Corotoman.
(1657-1734) came to Virginia in 1702. He married Anne Fox Chinn, and settled in Lancaster County. ( "Virginia Gleanings in England," [Virginia Magazine of History and Biography]
, 21 (1913): 249-253.
(1704-1763) was the son of William Churchill of "Bushy Park," Middlesex County. (Harrison, [Landmarks of Old Prince William,]
(1649/50-1710), of "Bushy Park,"
, served in various posts before being appointed to the Council on August 15, 1705. His daughter, Priscilla Churchill
, was to marry
Robert Carter's son Robert. (Tinling. [The Secret Diary of William Byrd. . . . ]
, 264, for death date
(28.XI.1710); and [William and Mary Quarterly,]
1st. ser., 8(1900): 39, 47-50 for genealogy of the Churchills.
(1665-1737), an attorney educated at Eton, Cambridge, and the Inner Temple, came to Virginia about 1705, and served as secretary to Governor Edward Nott. He practiced law, held various legal posts in the colony, and was appointed Attorney General in 1713. (Berkeley and Berkeley. [John Clayton.]
was a farm apparently in Lancaster County close to "Brick House
" and "Pursells."
was a farm in Westmoreland County "in Coles Neck just east of Lower Machodoc Creek on the Potomac" Mary R. Miller notes. The property, of some 1,350 acres, descended to Robert Carter III, according to Louis Morton. ( Miller, [Place-Names of the Northern Neck. . . .]
; and Morton, [ Robert Carter. . . . ]
(d. 1744), of "Buckingham," Middlesex County, and later of "Laneville," King and Queen County, was a justice of the
peace, burgess, collector, and naval officer of the Rappahannock; he owned extensive tracts of land in many counties. ("The Corbin Family of Virginia," 244
; and [Virginia Magazine of History and Biography,]
85 (Jan.77): 28, fn. 50.
(d. post 1732), a fellow trustee with Robert Carter of Ralph Wormeley's
estate, was born in Virginia but became a London merchant, perhaps in the firm run by his father's brother, Gawin Corbin (d. 1709), who was "for a number of years financial agent for Virginia in England. . . ." ("The Corbin Family of Virginia," 244.
or "Buckles," was a property very close to Robert Carter's home, also called "Corotoman." But this property was under the direction of an overseer named John Buckles, and Robert Carter frequently refers to it as "Buckles."
seems to have been an important house servant, probably the housekeeper for Robert Carter, then a widower, and is mentioned a number of times in the diary.
, a London merchant, began his career as an apprentice to Arthur Bailey
, and succeeded to the firm. He later brought Edward Athawes
into his business. Dawkins was one of Robert Carter's most frequent correspondents.
DICKENSON'S (DICKERSON'S) MILL,
a property of about 300 acres in Richmond County; it descended to Robert Carter III. Miller in her Place Names . . .
speculates that the property may be the present-day Garland's Mill on the pond of that name. (Miller, Place-Names. . . .
; and Louis Morton. Robert Carter of Nomini Hall
. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1964. p. 70.
1670-1726), was lieutenant governor under the Earl of Orkney, the titular governor who never came to Virginia. Drysdale arrived in Virginia in September 1722 and ruled the colony until his death in July 1726. Robert Carter, then ranking member of the Council, succeeded him. ( Raimo. [Directory of American Colonial . . . Governors 1607-1789.]
is the legal process of reversion of land to the lord of the manor (usually in these documents, to the proprietors of the Northern Neck) because of the death without heirs of the holder of the lands. Anyone wishing to patent escheated lands had to pay a fee to Robert Carter as the agent of the proprietors.
(1660-1735), of "Sandy Point," Westmoreland County, was a burgess and perhaps the most prominent man in the county at this time. He was the guardian for Mary Ball, mother of George Washington, and the latter's namesake. ( Lucy Brown Beale, "Colonel George Eskridge," [Northern Neck of Virginia Historical Magazine]
, 3(Dec. 1953): 233-236
; and Charles Willard Hoskins Warner, "George Eskridge of Westmoreland: His Age and Political Career," [Northern Neck of Virginia Historical Magazine]
, 16(Dec. 1966): 1450-1467.
1740), was sheriff of Northumberland County in 1729, and had a large estate. He petitioned the Lancaster County court for an acre of land "to build a Water Mill on the land lately belonging to Thomas Purrcell on Norris Bridge swamp. . . ." ( [Virginia Magazine of History and Biography]
34(1926): 201, 346, 347
; and Lancaster County Order Book 7, 1721-1729, pp. 66 and 69, as abstracted in Jones, [Orders Book Entries . . . Referring to "Robert Carter. . . ."]
, a London
(1693-1781), sixth Lord Fairfax, inherited the Northern Neck Proprietary in Virginia upon his mother's death in 1719. Her will established a trust that extended to "1728 [when] Robert Fairfax [Thomas' brother] reached the age of 21, and this event terminated Lady Fairfax's testamentary trust," relieving William Cage
, and giving Thomas Fairfax full control of his estates. Because of his concern over Robert Carter's management of them, he came to Virginia in 1735 to administer them himself. His relationship with George Washington
is well known. (Brown. [Virginia Baron . . .,]
and p. 39 for quotation.)
was located in King George County, and had twenty-four slaves, three horses, and thirty-eight cattle in the 1732 inventory of Robert Carter's estate; it lay on lands patented in March 1704 by James Innes for Robert Carter. ( "Carter Papers: An Inventory. . . ."
; and Harrison, Landmarks of Old Prince William
. p. 198.
was a new town created by the Assembly in February 1727. Robert Carter, Mann Page, Nicholas Smith, William Thornton, John Fitzhugh, Charles Carter, and Henry Fitzhugh the younger were the "directors and trustees." The land chosen for the site lay in King George County, and deeds were recorded in its court records. ( William Waller Hening, [The Statutes at Large; Being a Collection of the Laws of Virginia . . . .]
[Richmond, 1820. reprint, 1969], IV, pp. 234-39
was located in Fielding Neck, Northumberland County,and comprised some 1800 to 2000 acres. In the 1732 inventory of Robert Carter's estate, it had six slaves, twenty-four sheep, twenty-five hogs, thirty-three cattle, and a horse. It passed to Robert Carter III. ( Morton, [Robert Carter of Nomini Hall.]
; and "Carter Papers: An Inventory. . . ."
FITZHUGH, LUCY (CARTER)
(1715-1763), Robert Carter's fourteenth child. She married Henry Fitzhugh (1706-1742) of "Eagle's Nest," Stafford County, in 1730, and had four children; after Fitzhugh's death, she married Nathaniel Harrison (1713-1791). (Carleton. [A Genealogy. . . of Robert Carter. . . .]
is at the east end of Northumberland County not far from Corotoman.
(1666-1724), of Stafford County, nephew of Nicholas Hayward, developer of the Brent Town
speculation in the Northern Neck Proprietary. Foote's father was one of Hayward's partners, and a successful merchant in London. The son lived in the Brent Town tract, and represented the owners in Virginia.
, a merchant of Bristol
, very active in the Merchant Venturers' Company. He began
his career as an apprentice to Richard Franklin, who may have been his cousin, in 1693. His brother Henry Franklin was also apprenticed to Richard some years earlier. (McGrath. [Records Relating to the Society of Merchant Venturers . . . of Bristol.]
and McGrath. [The Merchants Venturers of Bristol: A History. . . .]
(d. 1729), "established Gibson's Tobacco Warehouse on the Rappahannock river on the dower land of his wife, Elizabeth (Thornton) Conway Gibson"; it was located "immediately opposite Port Royal in Caroline County." ( [King George County Virginia Will Book A-1 1721-1752 And Miscellaneous Notes]
. [Fredericksburg, Va.: Privately Printed, 1978], 237.
GOOCH, SIR WILLIAM
(1681-1751), lieutenant governor of the colony under the govenor, George Hamilton, Earl of Orkney, reached Williamsburg in September 1727. He served during the remainder of Carter's lifetime (and until August 1749). ( Emily J. Salmon and Edward D. C. Campbell, Jr. The Hornbook of Virginia History.
Richmond: The Library of Virginia, 1994. p. 106.
, presumed to be Jonathan Mathews'
partner in a London firm as Robert Carter usually addressed them jointly. He may have been a kinsman of William Churchill who named Nicholas and John
Goodwin of London as two of his executors. Robert Carter
was "agent" for the London merchants James Waye and Nicholas Goodwin in August 1709 when he obtained a court order on their behalf. ( [William and Mary Quarterly,]
; and Jones, [Orders Book Entries . . . Referring to "Robert Carter".]
was located in James City County about eight miles from Williamsburg, and five from Jamestown. Originally, it was the home of Sir William Berkeley, and passed into the Ludwell family when Philip Ludwell
(1638-1717) married Berkeley's widow.
was the captain of one of Carter's sloops, and is mentioned often in the diary. It is not clear whether he was an indentured servant or a contracted employee.
(1692-1748) of "Brandon,"" Middlesex County, served as deputy auditor of the colony and was appointed to the Council in 1725.
(1666-1737), Earl of Orkney, was appointed governor of Virginia, February 10, 1710, but never came to the colony during his tenure which extended to his death. He was a distinguished soldier and Privy Councillor. ( [Dictionary of National Biography]
HARRISON, ANNE (CARTER),
1743), Robert Carter's daughter, married in 1722 Benjamin Harrison
IV of "Bromley," Charles City County.
(1695-1745), of "Bromley," (later the builder of "Berkeley,") both in Charles City County, a prominent citizen and frequently a burgess, married Robert Carter's daughter Anne
in 1722. ( "Harrison of James River," [Virginia Magazine of History and Biography. ]
(1697-1727), of "Wakefield," Surry County, justice, burgess, naval officer, and receiver of duties, was appointed to the Council in 1713. (Tyler, [Encyclopedia of Virginia Biography,]
; and McIlwaine. [Executive Journals of the Council. . . .]
, 3(1705-1721) and 4(1721-1739): numerous references.
(d. 1721), settled his family at "Accokeek" on Potomac Creek, Stafford County, a property he bought from George Mason (1629-1686). He was one of Robert Carter's senior overseers, or managers, and his accidental death caused problems for Robert Carter. (Harrison, Landmarks of Old Prince William
, pp. 198-203
; and Robert A. Rutland, [The Papers of George Mason]
. [Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1970], l, x.
was located in Richmond County "northeast of Warsaw." ( Miller, Place-Names of the Northern Neck . . . .
, p. 66.
" was a farm owned by Robert Carter located in Lancaster County relatively close to his home, "Corotoman."
1666-1734), an English-born lawyer who emigrated first to Maryland, and then to Virginia at the beginning of the eighteenth century. He represented King and Queen County in the House of Burgesses in 1710, and was elected Speaker in the sessions of 1720-1722, 1723-1726, and 1728-1734. He was at first a strong supporter of Alexander Spotswood, but later broke with him. He did legal work for Robert Carter from time to time. (Kukla. Speakers and Clerks. . . .
was appointed sheriff of Stafford County in 1719. ( McIlwaine. [Executive Journals of the Council. . . .]
, 3 (1721-1739): p. xl.
HUST (or Hurst), JOHN,
was the overseer of "Hamstead Quarter," Stafford County, in the 1732 inventory of Robert Carter's estate, supervising sixteen slaves with the assistance of one horse. Hust apparently was a carpenter because Carter mentions his doing carpentry work in various letters. ( "Carter Papers: An Inventory. . . ."
,usually referred to as "Captain," was a London merchant with whom Robert Carter dealt. His firm owned the Providence
INDIAN TOWN (plantation) was a farm located in Lancaster County near Weems and Carter's home at "Corotoman." He inherited it from his brother John Carter II. In 1732, John Leathead was the overseer of 26 slaves, 114 cattle, and a number of hogs. (Miller, Place-Names. . . .
; "Carter Papers: An Inventory. . . ."
; and Christine A. Jones, compiler. John Carter II of "Corotoman" Lancaster County, Virginia.
Irvington, VA: Foundation for Historica Christ Church, Inc., 1978. p. 54.
a Richmond County property acquired by Robert Carter toward the end of 1728. Enoch Innis inherited it from his father, James, who died in 1709. ( Lucy Jane Brent Palmer, "Charles Brent of Stafford County and Some of His Descendants," [Virginia Magazine of History and Biography]
, 34(1926): 280-85 and 378-84
; and "Abstracts From Records of Richmond County, Virginia," [William and Mary Quarterly]
, 1st. ser.,17(1908-09): 173-177,
which cites records of Richmond County concerning this will, probated 25 December 1709, as from Will Book 3).
(1659-1727), at odds with Robert Carter for most of his life. Born in England, he was trained as a lawyer and
practiced that profession in Virginia where he was Attorney General and
Secretary of State as well as a member of the Council and holder of many lesser offices. He succeeded Robert Carter as agent for the proprietors of the Northern Neck in 1711, and, due to his poor health, left the records in a considerable muddle as Robert Carter found upon resuming the agency in 1721. Jenings accrued many debts, especially to London merchant Micajah Perry
, and Robert
Carter eventually took a mortgage on Jenings' estate, "Ripon Hall," taking
it over when Jenings could not make the payments. Because of poor health Jenings was suspended from the Council in 1726 when Lt. Governor Hugh Drysdale was planning a trip to England for his health. Robert Carter thus became first member of the Council, and acting governor upon Drysdale's sudden death on July 22, 1726. (Brown. [Virginia Baron. . . .]
and a variety of other sources.)
replaced Nathaniel Hedgeman
as Carter's "general overseer" in late spring 1721 after Hedgeman's accidental death. Johnson, Carter wrote Captain Thomas Hooper on June 22, 1721, "hath lived under me for several Years and I hope will prove a diligent honest man . . . although he is unlettered." ( Wright, [Letters of Robert Carter 1720-1727.]
, a long-time overseer for Carter at Hills Quarter in Lancaster County. Carter mentioned him in several diary entries after 1723, wrote to him there in 1727, and he appears in Carter's will as the overseer on that property. ( "Carter Papers: An Inventory. . . ."
, resident of Prince William County where he was a justice and
sheriff 1731-1732. He probably sold Robert Carter a plantation in Northumberland County that is mentioned in Robert Carter's will. In 1727, Jones seems to have been Robert Carter's chief overseer in the upper country; see the lengthy letter to him of 10 October 1727. (Harrison. [Landmarks. . . .]
, and Berkeley. "Robert Carter as Agricultural Administrator: . . .",
(d. 1734), Bristol
merchant, and a prominent citizen who served as a member of the corporation, 1716-1734, sheriff, 1719-1720, and as mayor in 1732-1734. He was involved in both tobacco and iron. (Minchinton. [Politics and the Port of Bristol in the Eighteenth Century. . . . ]
pp. 23, 31, 147
; and Alfred B. Beavan, [Bristol Lists: Municipal and Miscellaneous.]
"was the home of Lewis Burwell
(d. 1710) in York County. He was a member of Council and the father of Nathaniel
(1680-1721) who married Robert Carter's daughter, Elizabeth, in 1708.
(1648-1714), third son of Richard Lee, the emigrant, inherited considerable property in Virginia when his father died in 1664. But he had probably already served a "commercial apprenticeship in London with Griffith and Lockey" before returning to Virginia about 1670. He settled in Northumberland County, became a justice, and
prospered. The call of merchant life took him back to London where he kept offices first in Buttolfe Lane, and later in St. Dionis, Backchurch. (Montague. "Richard Lee, the Emigrant 1613 (?)-1664."
[Virginia Magazine. . . .]
and Tinling. [The Correspondence of the Three William Byrds. . . .]
(1691-1740), of "Ditchley," Northumberland County, a justice and long-time (1716-1735) clerk of the county court. He was the son of Hancock Lee (d. 1709), an intimate friend of Robert Carter who was named in Lee's will as "a good friend," and appointed one of the trustees of his children. (Cazenove G. Lee, [Lee Chronicle . . .]
; and Wright. [Letters of Robert Carter. . . .]
LLOYD, ELIZABETH (CARTER)
, only child of Robert Carter's brother John. Elizabeth (1675-1693) married John Lloyd in 1691, and was dead by November 1693 of measles. John appointed managers of the estate in 1699 in Essex County, and returned to England the next year as he had inherited land there. Elizabeth inherited from her mother, Elizabeth Hull, also an only child, all of her grandfather John Hull's property. ("Abstracts of Richmond County, Virginia" [from Order Book 1], [William and Mary Quarterly]
, 1st. ser., 18(October 1908): 73-85
; see also
Carl F. Cannon, Jr., "Robert ("King") Carter of "Corotoman." Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Duke University, 1956, p.25.
a plantation lying up the Rappahannock near the falls as Robert Carter always sent his sloop for its tobacco. Robert Carter was involved with the Lloyd property which was that of John Lloyd, widower of Robert Carter's niece Elizabeth
. The estate's tobacco mark was the double arrowhead or double "L" which Robert Carter uses in his diary to refer to it. He undertook to buy the Lloyd estate in the later years of his life, and finally acquired it about 1730. Richard Meeks was the overseer.
(1675-1729), born in North Shields, Northumberland, England, came to Virginia in 1701, and married Betty Wormeley, daughter of Ralph Wormeley
, two years later. Through her, he acquired "Portobogo," Essex (later, Caroline) County. He was a justice of the peace. (Lomax Family Bible.
(c. 1638-1717?), emigrated from England about 1660, rising to Council membership in 1675. He supported
Governor Sir William Berkeley during Bacon's Rebellion, and married Berkeley's widow, Frances, in 1677. He was a stormy character, fighting with governors, losing and winning back his Council seat on two occasions. He returned to England where he represented the House of Burgesses, later served as governor of Northern Carolina and of North and South Carolina, returning to England in 1700 where he lived seventeen more years. ("Ludwell Family"
; "Philip Ludwell's Account," [Virginia Magazine of History and Biography]
; and the [Dictionary of American Biography]
auditor, member of and president of the Council, and rector of the College of William and Mary. ("Ludwell Family,"
(1679-1724), son of Dennis McCarty (d. 1694) of Richmond County, an attorney, sheriff (1710-1712), and longtime burgess from Westmoreland County (1705-1724), Speaker of the House of Burgesses in 1715 and 1718. He married Ann Lee, daughter of the second Richard Lee, and widow of the second William Fitzhugh. (Kukla. [Speakers and Clerks. . . .]
(or Mangorike) was a farm in Richmond County "in the vicinity of present Downing Bridge spanning the Rappahannock and present-day Little Carter Creek. . . . It consisted of 1,800 acres belonging to Colonel Moore Fauntleroy in the seventeenth century." Robert Carter bequeathed it to Landon Carter. ( Miller, [Place-Names . . .]
, p. 93.
; and Greene, The Diary of Colonel Landon Carter. . . .
, London merchant, probably a member of the Stationers Company. He and his partner, John Goodwin,
with William Churchill
, and Robert Carter owned the Friendly Society
, a 60-ton vessel trading from London to Barbados and Virginia. (Horwitz, et al.
[London Politics 1713-1717. . . .]
; and "Collector's Return . . .," ff. 160.
was described by Robert Carter in a letter of July 15, 1720, as the "general overseer" of the property that he consistently referred to by its tobacco mark of a double arrowhead or double "L"; it was the Lloyd
properties belonging to John Lloyd, widower of Robert Carter's niece, Elizabeth. Lloyd went to England about 1700. Robert Carter apparently leased the lands from him for many years, and eventually acquired title to them about 1730.
is six miles southeast of Williamsburg; in his will, Robert Carter directed that it be called "Carter's Grove" in perpetuity, and this is the name it bears today. The house on the property today was built by Robert Carter's grandson, Carter Burwell, beginning about 1750. ( "Carter Papers: An Inventory. . . ."
(c. 1685-c.1734), of "Chelsea," King William County, a justice and prominent leader. ( J.H.P., "The Gorsuch and Lovelace Families," [Virginia Magazine of History and Biography.]
25(1917): pp. 431-44.
was a large farm of some 1,800 acres in Richmond County where there were several of that name. Robert Carter had bought it from Moore Fauntleroy; "it was located on the hill just south of the present Totuskey Bridge." The farm had eight slaves, thirty-six hogs, and a horse in the 1732 inventory of Robert Carter's estate. ( Miller, [Place-Names of the Northern Neck. . . .]
, 19, 102-103.
; and "Carter Papers: An Inventory. . . ."
was a farm in Spotsylvania County; in the inventory of Robert Carter's estate, it had 22 slaves, 7 horses, 73 hogs, and 59 cattle. ( "Carter Papers: An Inventory. . . ."
may be the Nanzatico Indian Path in "Westmoreland County near the King George County line. . . ." ( Miller, Place-Names of the Northern Neck. . . .
(1655-1728), professional soldier and administrator of five colonies, served rather successfully in Virginia as lieutenant governor, June 1690-March 1692, and was then sent to Maryland. He returned to Virginia to serve a contentious term as governor of the colony from 1698 to 1705. After his recall from Virginia, he served as governor of New York. ( [Dictionary of American Biography]
; "Papers Relating to the Administration of Governor Nicholson. . . ."
; and Billings. et al.
[Colonial Virginia: A History,]
esp. Chapter 7, "The Era of the Council."
or "Nomini Hall" as it would later be called, was a tract originally containing about 3,500 acres in Westmoreland County "south of Machodoc and Beales Corner near Howard's Fork" on Nomini Creek, which flows into the Potomac River. Robert Carter built the original house there for his grandson, "Councillor" Robert Carter. ( Miller. [Place-Names of the Northern Neck. . . .]
, p. 112.
was a farm located on an important Rappahannock River (earlier Hedgeman's River) crossing on the old Iroquois trail, later called the Carolina Road. Fairfax Harrison states that it received its name because Isaac Norman patented the land in June 1726, but Robert Carter referred to it by this name four years earlier. It is located where U.S. 29 and U.S. 15 cross the Rappahannock between Culpeper and Fauquier counties. Roger Oxford was the overseer. ("The Old Roads and the Ordinaries," in Harrison, Landmarks of Old Prince William
, 441-517, esp. fn. 37 on p. 500.
was one of Robert Carter's overseers and is mentioned often in the diary.
was a farm apparently not too far from "Corotoman" in Lancaster County because Carter mentions in his diary visiting it fairly often. It had seven slaves, twenty-four hogs, and thirty-five cattle in 1732 inventory of Robert Carter's estate. ( "Carter Papers: An Inventory. . . ."
a tract in Westmoreland County, had 15 slaves, 87 hogs, 57 cattle, 27 sheep, and 6 horses in the 1732 inventory of Robert Carter's estate; James Whaley was then its overseer. ( "Carter Papers: An Inventory. . . ."
PAGE, JUDITH (CARTER)
1750), Robert Carter's fifth child" and the last by his wife, Judith Armistead,
[and] was also named Judith following the first Judith who died in infancy. . . . She was the grandmother of John Page, Governor of Virginia." (Carleton. [A Genealogy. . . of Robert Carter. . . .]
(1691-1730), of "Rosewell," Gloucester County, married in late July or early August 1718 Judith Carter, Robert Carter's fifth child by his wife Judith Armistead
. Page attended Eton and Oxford, and was appointed to the Council shortly after returning to Virginia. In 1726 he began the house at "Rosewell" but he did not live to complete it. Mann Page II finished the construction; the house burned in 1916, and it is now a "romantic and noble ruin." ("Council Proceedings." [Virginia Magazine. . . .]
; and O'Neal. [Architecture in Virginia. . . . ]
lay in Stafford County. In the 1732 inventory of Robert Carter's estate, James Seben was overseer; it had twenty-four slaves, four horses, thirty-eight hogs, and fifty-four cattle. Carter bequeathed it to his son George
and it came to Landon Carter in 1741 after George's death. ( Greene. [The Diary of Colonel Landon Carter. . . .]
, p. 5.
; and "Carter Papers: An Inventory. . . ."
(d. 1744), merchant of Liverpool, one of Robert Carter's most frequent correspondents. His was an old mercantile family; a John Pemberton, tailor, was removed from the Common Council of Liverpool in 1662 for failure to take the oath required by a Parliamentary act of that year. This later Pemberton was a devout churchman as his name appears frequently in the vestry books. He is credited with being a leader in the economic revival of Liverpool in the early eighteenth century. (Picton. [City of Liverpool. . . . ]
; Peet. [Liverpool Vestry Books. . . . ]
; and Clemens. "The Rise of Liverpool, 1665-1750."
PENMOND'S (Peumond's, etc.) END (plantation)
was located in Caroline County where it appears on the Fry-Jefferson map near Port Royal. In 1732, there were 26 slaves, 50 hogds, and 92 cattle under the direction of overseer Henry Bell. ("Carter Papers: An Inventory. . . ."
(d. 1721), eminent London merchant deeply involved in the colonial tobacco and other trade. With his brother Richard, and Thomas Lane, he operated the firm of Perry, Lane and Company. Another brother, Peter Perry, was a merchant in York County, Virginia. Perry frequently represented the interests of Virginia in England, both officially and unofficially, and was often consulted when questions concerning Virginia were
discussed by government bodies ranging from the Board of Trade to Parliament. There is some evidence that he had visited Virginia himself; he was widely knowledgeable about its citizens. (Donnan. "18th-Century English Merchants: Micajah Perry"
; and Price. [Perry of London. . . .
(1695-1753), London merchant, grandson of the eminent Micajah Perry, who becaue active in the firm well before his grandfather's death in 1721. He and his younger brother Philip inherited their grandfather's shares in the business.(Price. [Perry of London. . . .
PEWMONDS (PEUMONDS, etc.) END
, a farm of some 2,000 acress in Caroline County shown on the Fry-Jefferson map. In 1732, Henry Bell was the overseer of 26 slaves, 50 hogs, and 92 cattle. It was bequeathed to John Carter. ( "Carter Papers: An Inventory. . . ."
was a Stafford County farm, and William Threalkill was the overseer there in the 1732 inventory of Robert Carter's estate, directing fourteen slaves with twenty-five hogs and thirty-one cattle on the farm. ( "Carter Papers: An Inventory. . . ."
, probably a London merchant; one of the owners of the Industry
(1693-1737), called to the bar in England in 1717. He was appointed clerk
of the House of Burgesses after he returned to the colony where he carried on an extensive private practice, acted as
Attorney General in 1726-1727, and filled other offices. He returned to
England in 1728 as the agent of the colony, and was agent again in
1732. At this time, he became very friendly with Sir Robert Walpole, and won a knighhood for his work for the colony, the only colonial figure to be so rewarded. (Kukla. [Speakers and Clerks. . . . ]
RED OAK QUARTER
was in Prince William County; in the 1732 inventory of Robert Carter's estate, John Wilcox was overseer, and there were fourteen slaves, fifty-one hogs, forty-one cattle, and one horse. ( "Carter Papers: An Inventory. . . ."
was a farm located in King George County. In the 1732 inventory of Robert Carter's estate, it had thirteen slaves, one horse named "Mountain," seventy hogs, and fifty-five cattle. Tim Stamps was the overseer here in 1726. ( "Carter Papers: An Inventory. . . ."
(d. 1739) an attorney, became clerk of the General Assembly on May 13, 1702, and served until shortly before his death. He also served as clerk of the Council. (Kukla, [Speakers. . . . ]
pp. 120 and 148.
1721), of Richmond County, a justice and burgess. (Inventory in Torrance, [Virginia Wills. . . . ]
is the Wormeley home in Middlesex County; it lies across Rosegill Creek from today's town of Urbana, and is slightly up and across the Rappahannock from "Corotoman." (See the map in Rutman and Rutman, [A Place in Time: Middlesex. . . . ]
(1666-1734), of Richmond County; he was justice and coroner, and later was on the first slate of justices for King George County when it was formed in 1720; he served as burgess from King George as well. ( C. W. Coleman. "Genealogy of the Smith Family of Essex County, Virginia," [William and Mary Quarterly]
, 2d sers., 25(1916-17): 170-83.
was a major overseer for Robert Carter. There are many references to him in Robert Carter's diary where he is usually referred to as "Mr."
1665-1726), a prominent citizen of King George County where he was a justice, sheriff, and burgess. His home lay two miles below the falls of the Rappahannock River. After his death, his widow sold the place to Augustine Washington. Later called "Ferry Farm," it was the boyhood home of George Washington. Strother directed the work on "Carter's Mount" whose location is not presently known. ( "Historical and Genealogical Notes," [William and Mary Quarterly.]
1st sers., 1(1892-93): 23, 143
; and George Harrison Sanford King, "Washington's Boyhood Home," [William and Mary Quarterly.]
2nd. sers., 17(1937): 265-281
(d. 1710), of Lancaster County was Robert Carter's brother-in-law through his marriage to Mary (Landon) Jones
SWAN, MARY (LANDON) JONES
(d. 1722) married first John Jones, and later Captain Alexander Swan
of Lancaster County who died in 1710. She died in 1722 leaving her property to the Carters. ("Pinkard Family." [William and Mary Quarterly]
; and "The Landon Family." [Virginia Magazine. . . .]
(d. 1739), merchant of Weymouth, Dorset, a prominent figure in that town, serving as mayor in 1705, 1716, 1721, 1725, and 1735, and as a member
of Parliament. (Sedgwick. [The History of Pariament . . . Commons.]
(d. 1742), of "Hickory Hill" in Cople Parish, Westmoreland County, a justice and burgess. He married Lettice Fitzhugh. ( "The Fitzhugh Family," [Virginia Magazine of History and Biography]
, 7(1899-1900): 196-199, 317-319, and 425-427
; and Norris. [Westmoreland County Virginia.]
an important overseer for Robert Carter until his death in January 1726; he seems to have been in charge of Jackson's mill as well.
was a farm owned by Robert Carter, probably located in Northumberland County where there is a creek of this name.
was a farm owned by Robert Carter located in Lancaster County relatively close to Corotoman.
(1682-1740), daughter of Ralph Wormeley
(1650-1701) and Katherine Lunsford; she married, on June 1, 1703, Dr. John Lomax.
(Lomax Family Bible.
WORMELEY, ELIZABETH (ARMISTEAD)
was Robert Carter's sister-in-law through his first wife, Judith Armistead
, her sister. She married first Ralph Wormeley,
and was mother of Ralph (ca. 1681-1714) and John (1689-1727) for whom Robert Carter was one of a number of trustees. She married second William Churchill.
(1650-1701), member of the Council and Secretary of State of Virginia, who lived at "Rosegill," Middlesex County. He was Robert Carter's brother-in-law, having married Elizabeth Armistead
, sister of Judith Armistead
, Robert Carter's first wife.