A Collection Transcribed
by Edmund Berkeley, Jr.
List of Letters
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Letter from Robert Carter to Micajah Perry, August 1, 1723
Robert Carter writes despondantly to London merchant Micajah Perry, August 1, 1723, that the sales accounts he has received recently for his stemmed tobacco sales are the poorest in 10 years, and portend the new act forbidding the important of such tobacco. He expects the effect of the act will be much fraud accompanied by a strong drive by Scots merchants to take over the trade in sweet scented tobacco. In the long term, he expects the English merchants to resist the Scots. On the brighter side, he expects better prices for stemmed tobacco until the act goes into effect.
Letter from Robert Carter to Micajah Perry,
August 1, 1723
Rappahannock, [Lancaster County, Virginia]
Augst. 1st. 1723 --
Since Sealing up my Lettrs. for the Sarah
Yor. Packetts by Hopkins
are come to hand, Most
News they bring, The Poorest Accots. for Stemd Tobo. that we
have seen this 10 Yrs. Day, and an Act of Parliament,
forbidding Us to make any more, Mortifying Considerations
Indeed, Were it not for the Remembrance that We have but
A Short time to be in this Inconstant World, & that a few
Years will make it Equal to me, how things are Transac=
The reasons prevailing it Seems have bin the
[ . . . ]
Advantage to the Kings Revenue, which I am Very much of the
Opinion will be found In Experience to be a great Mistake
It seems probable a New Door of fraud is opned, The Scotch
Will now drive Furiously after the
[ Sweat Sented Trade
they could not so well do while steming was in Fashion
The Consequence whereof will be, dammage to the Shipping
In their Freights, and to Us the. Consignrs. who must pay the
full Duty, Insomuch that in a few Yrs. neither the English
Merchts. nor the Gentn. in the Country will be able to live
but I have Strong hopes, that the Eyes of Our Superiors will
be soon Opned & that the Interst, of the Eng. Merchts. will Ere
long revive again, & will never Suffer the Trade to be wholly
ravishd out of their hands, and as for the Enlargeing the Quan=
=tity, We that Consigne home our Own Tobo. must handle it
More nicely than Ever we did, & heave away all the Ground
leaves and All the shatter'd & broken peices, Although the
Small Tobo, & the Luggs
well Manag'd is really as good, &
As Acceptable to the Pipe, as the best Top Leafes from whence
I reckon the Quantity will be as
much lessend as it is now
by heaving away the Stems, It should seem as if this Act
would raise the price of the Stemd Tobo. now gon home, which I
believe is the Neatest & the Cleanest from Trash that Ever
You Saw a Crop, The Smoakers will be for laying in Great
Stocks, which If reason takes place will Enliven Your
Markett Some Folks think You will hasten away
Your Ships, that they may return before the Act Commen
=ces, We Shall be in a great
what to do
till we hear from You, Our Crop is Early & may reasonably
be made fitt for Shipping at least the greatest part by Christmas
will Inform You of the Dammage [...]
done to our Crop, by a pretty Smart Storme, Four [days ago]
I am Sir Yor. very humble. Ser[vant]
I Observe in the Act of Parliament
there is now only Eight pound of Tobo.
upon a hhd. Allowd at the Scale this Allowance
I take to belong to the Importer.
Source copy consulted:
Robert Carter letter book, 1723 June 16-1724 April 23, Robert Carter Papers (acc. no. 3807), Albert and Shirley Small Special Collections Library, University of Virginia. There is a nineteenth-century transcript of this letter in the Minor-Blackford Papers, James Monroe Law Office and Museum, Fredericksburg, Virginia.
Robert Carter generally used a return address of "Rappahannock" for the river on which he lived rather than "Corotoman," the name of his home, on his correspondence, especially to merchants abroad. The county and colony have been added for clarity.
 Captain James Hopkins would be in command of the Mary
in 1727-1728. He was then working for London merchant Robert Cary. He is mentioned in Carter's diary. ( Adm. 68/194, found in the microfilms of the Virginia Colonial Records Project, Albert and Shirley Small Special Collections Library, University of Virginia.
 Parliament had passed an act forbidding the importation of stemmed tobacco in 1722. John Randolph was sent to England in 1729 as agent for Virginia to try to have the act overturned; his mission would be successful. ( Arthur Pierce Middleton. Tobacco Coast: A Maritime History of the Chesapeake Bay in the Colonial Era.
[Newport News, VA: Mariners' Museum, 1953], 116.
 The trading policies of Scots merchants were of considerable concern to Virginia planters and English merchants at this time, and the matter came before Parliament in 1723. Vessels sent by Scots were crewed by captains and factors authorized to pay good prices in Virginia which enabled them to obtain full cargoes. English merchants argued that the only way the Scots could afford to pay such good prices was their ability to avoid paying duties on the tobacco at home. Micajah Perry appeared before Parliament and gave statistics of the duties paid by his firm in earlier years and the far smaller amounts paid in the past several years because his ships could not obtain full cargoes in Virginia. (Price. Perry of London. . . .
 Sweetscented tobacco was one of two major types grown in Carter's day. It was mild compared to the stronger oronocco. Sweetscented required "a type of soil of limited distribution" and "was largely confined to the banks of the great rivers, the James, York, Rappahannock, and Potomac." ( Arthur Pierce Middleton. Tobacco Coast: A Maritime History of the Chesapeake Bay in the Colonial Era.
Newport News, VA: Mariners' Museum, 1953. p. 97
 "The lowest grade [of tobacco] was known as lugs as early as 1686. . . ." ( Philip A. Bruce. Economic History of Virginia in the Seventeenth Century: An Inquiry into the Material Condition of the People, Based on Original and Contemporaneous Records.
[New York: MacMillan and Co., 1896], I:442 online at "Classics of American Colonial History."
 Captain [James?] Richardson commanded the Sarah
and was based in Weymouth.
This text revised November 6, 2009.